What concentration of adjuvant is recommended in vaccines?

We most often recommend 10 to 20%. Adding more than 20% has not been shown to improve stimulation of the immune response even though they are safe at higher concentrations in host animals.

Is there anything that needs to be done to the adjuvant prior to addition to the antigen?

It is recommended to gently mix the adjuvant for up to 2 hours prior to addition to the antigen (mixing time depends on the volume). Use of a shaker or rocker is not recommended for use in premixing the adjuvant.

Are laboratory animal model systems a suitable method to compare adjuvants?

In some instances, laboratory animal models are effective, but we have found that the immune response can be significantly different in laboratory animals as compared with target animals. We recommend selection of adjuvants be based on target animal studies.

Is it difficult to produce vaccines using EMULSIGEN® type adjuvants and is special equipment required?

Emulsigen-based adjuvants have already been emulsified during their manufacturing process. This means that, as shown in the video on the home page, only simple mixing is needed to mix the antigen and adjuvant, unlike when using other water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water type adjuvants.
Remember, the adjuvant must be mixed well before it is added to the antigen.

Can you use other adjuvants in combination with Emulsigen?

Use of another adjuvant is not required with most vaccines since our adjuvants stimulate a strong immune response. However, with certain types of bacteria that have a high level of endotoxin, aluminum hydroxide is often used at low concentration to reduce the effect of the endotoxin so that the vaccine is safe.

Do the MVP adjuvants products enhance a humoral antibody response?

These antigens do produce a humoral IgG/IgM antibody response in the host animal. In addition, many of our adjuvants may produce a strong cellular response resulting in increased activation of Th1 cells. Administration of our Carbigen™ adjuvant product has been shown to produce a significant IgA response post intranasal administration. Some of our adjuvants have also demonstrated a significant Ɣ-interferon response.

What are the recommended methods of administration for the MVP adjuvants product line?

Our adjuvants have been used by multiple routes of administration such as IM, SQ, IP and intranasally. Our Carbigen™ adjuvant product is an excellent adjuvant specifically designed for mucosal administration. Studies have shown that our adjuvants are less reactive than most water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water adjuvants, routes of administration such as IM and IP can be used.

Do you provide a Certificate of Analysis?

Yes, a Certificate of Analysis is provided with each lot of adjuvant that demonstrates purity and consistency of the product. Other tests are run depending on the type of adjuvant produced and the request of the customer.

Are the components used in producing MVP adjuvants products listed in any official regulatory documents?

Yes, all main components are included in one of the following lists: Annex II, GRAS lists, EC No 470/2009 or EU No 37/2010.

What is the withdrawal time after administering our adjuvants to food-producing animals?

For some of our adjuvants we recommend at least a 21-day withdrawal time, which has been demonstrated in pigs. Carbigen has been previously approved for use in a U.S. licensed, intranasal vaccine product for neonates with a 0-day withdrawal.

What is the shelf life of our MVP adjuvant products?

We recommend our adjuvants should be combine with an antigen within 2 years from the date of manufacture. After mixing with antigens, the shelf life is dependent on the antigen contained in the vaccine.

Do you have adjuvant recommendations for specific antigens?

Yes, for example:

Our Carbigen adjuvant product has been successfully used in numerous PCV2 vaccines.
Our Carbigen adjuvant product also has been successfully used in intranasally-applied respiratory vaccines.
Our Emulsigen-D adjuvant product has been successfully used in numerous IAV-S and PRRS vaccines.

Contact our adjuvant specialist for more information on additional recommendations on specific antigens.